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And she him On er, see among many other references, Van Riemsdijk (1978) and Bennis (1986). Kayne does discuss certain potential counterexamples such as Je I 'ai vu qui courait ä toute vitesse ( Ί him saw that/who ran at full speed' = Ί saw him running at full speed'). Cf. Kayne (1975: 126). As Kayne points ou,t this construction is subject to many rather idiosyncratic constraints and can be ignored in the present discussion. The term seems to be due to Aissen and Perlmutter (1976), which appeared in a revised and expanded version as Aissen and Perlmutter (1983).

36. See in particular Sportiche (1983) for insightful discussion of these options and their interpretation in terms of the choice between Α-movement and Ä-movement. 37. See Chomsky (1982) for some pertinent proposals. 38. Cf. particularly Koopman (1984), Baker (1988) and much subsequent work. 39. One way of avoiding the problems that arise from the interaction between citic movement and the HMC is adopt the proposal in Chomsky (1986) to derive the HMC from the Empty Category Principle (ECP). Cases of apparent violations of the HMC would then be those in which the ECP is nevertheless obeyed.

It turns out, however, that there are cases in which clitics cooccur with an overt phrase in the other position. This phenomenon, called "clitic doubling" by Jaeggli (1982), constitutes a considerable problem for the assumption that all clitic constructions are derived by means of movement. An example is given in (19). (19) Miguelitole regalo un caramelo α Mafalda. Μ. her gave a candy to M. In many cases, doubling is even obligatory: (20) a. Le duele la cabeza α Mafalda. her hurts the head to M.

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