By Craig A. Parsons, Timothy M. Smeeding
A brand new form of old transformation is underway in twenty-first-century Europe. Twentieth-century Europeans have been no strangers to social, monetary and political switch, yet their significant demanding situations targeted customarily at the intra-European building of strong, filthy rich, capitalist democracies. at the present time, in contrast, one of many significant demanding situations is flows throughout borders - and especially in-flows of non-European humans. Immigration and minority integration regularly occupy the headlines. the problems which rival immigration - unemployment, crime, terrorism - are usually offered via politicians as its damaging secondary results. Immigration is additionally in detail attached to the profound demanding situations of demographic switch, fiscal progress and welfare-state reform. either educational observers and the eu public are more and more confident that Europe's destiny will principally activate how is admits and integrates non-Europeans. This booklet is a accomplished stock-taking of the modern scenario and its coverage implications.
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Extra resources for Immigration and the Transformation of Europe
Friedman, Thomas L. 2000 The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Anchor Books. ” Studies in Comparative International Development 35(4): 3–29. Guiraudon, Virginie 2000 Les politiques d’immigration en Europe. Paris: L’Harmattan. , Vol 7, Craig Parsons and Nicolas Jabko (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 325–44. Guiraudon, Virginie and Christian Joppke (eds) 2001 Controlling a New Migration World. New York: Routledge. ” Review of International Studies 26(4): 609–32.
7). Moreover, even importing such huge numbers would not entirely sidestep the welfare-state challenge. As Steve Camarota has pointed out in the United States context (and as Paul Demeny notes in his chapter), while immigrants’ relative youth and fertility rates mean that very large flows could help age balances, their low average socio-economic status means that they offer less of a solution for redistributive policies. Pension-system contributions are progressive in all European societies, so poor workers contribute the least and benefit disproportionately (Camarota 2005).
Issues of international migration are complicated because the benefits and costs – economic, social, and political – that immigration imparts on a receiving population are multifarious and are unevenly distributed. In what follows, I expand on the brief mention of these issues in the editors’ introduction by examining some demographic patterns in a bit more detail. Dynamic but prudent Europe Europe’s role as the vanguard in modern economic development and that continent’s demographic uniqueness underlie the complexity inherent in the issue of immigration in Europe.