By Bob Catley
This e-book tells the tale of Australia's integration into the foreign economic system. It lines the Australian economic system from Federation to its inevitable downturn within the Seventies and assesses the present kingdom of play as Australia struggles below the pressures of financial globalisation. Bob Catley argues that the insistent safeguard of household commodity industries has left Australia tied to gradual development industries on the cost of increasing the synthetic items and companies industries which now make up the majority of global alternate. issues contain the inadequacies of the dirigiste twin economic system, the mandatory upward push of monetary rationalism, demographic and geographic repercussions of globalisation, and the consequences for Australian diplomacy of the rising strength of the Asia-Pacific quarter. Catley argues that structural adjustments are nonetheless required to make sure a aggressive Australian economic system on the planet marketplace.
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Extra resources for Globalising Australian Capitalism
At each successive appreciation of the yen - from 360 to the US dollar in 1970 to less than 100 in 1995 - the Japanese car-makers have been able to hold market share. The Plaza Agreement of 1985 to appreciate the yen by effectively 30 per cent also had little consequence on Japanese auto industry performance. This was achieved by Japanese producers selling into a domestic market of almost uninterrupted growth for forty years. By the 1990s this market was saturated. As the yen edged up they moved plant to markets in the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere.
Japanese and European car-makers first began seriously to penetrate the US market in the 1960s. Then as the US dollar floated downward and imports got more expensive they found it more profitable to invest in establishing car assembly plants in the United States. The Japanese in particular introduced their more productive assembly techniques, involving just-in-time accounting, quality circles and better products, and almost matched Japanese output rates in their US plants. The American companies meanwhile were having a weapons bonanza which was to produce the dazzling technology of the Gulf War but no great export order book.
Great changes of that order require both these factors. The Roman Empire was overthrown not because it lacked technology but because it lacked the political and social mechanisms and incentives to use it, in large measure because slavery provided cheap labour. The Chinese imperial system stagnated after achieving world's leading status in technology, economic size and power projection in the sixteenth century, largely because its centralised power decreed an end to technical innovation and geographic exploration.