By Jennifer S. Light
During the early many years of the chilly warfare, large-scale investments in American safeguard and aerospace learn and improvement spawned numerous problem-solving concepts, applied sciences, and associations. From structures research to reconnaissance satellites to imagine tanks, those recommendations didn't stay particular components of the protection institution. as an alternative, they without problems chanced on civilian purposes in either the personal and public area. urban making plans and administration have been no exception.
Jennifer gentle argues that the applied sciences and values of the chilly battle essentially formed the historical past of postwar city the United States. From struggle to Welfare records how American intellectuals, urban leaders, and the government selected to assault difficulties within the nation's towns by way of borrowing strategies and applied sciences first designed for army engagement with overseas enemies. Experiments in city challenge fixing tailored the services of security pros to stand new threats: city chaos, blight, and social unrest. Tracing the move of recommendations from army to urban making plans and administration, gentle unearths how a continuous resource of proposal for American urban directors lay within the nation's arrangements for war.
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Additional info for From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America
Wiener’s vision of a distributed population alongside a sophisticated information network was the centerpiece of his vision for a healthy and humane future society. Wiener died in 1964, before ARPANET would make his predictions about message transmission a reality. Yet during the last years of his life, several urban experiments got under way to bring cybernetic principles to city planning and management. Communication technologies would not be used for dispersed citizen-citizen or citizen-government communications, as Wiener imagined.
In every era, one or two “images of the city” dominate urban planning and management; techniques and technologies can play a de~ning role. 4 The book—an effort to aid designers struggling to improve the urban order and make it more responsive to users’ needs—sought to understand how city residents make mental maps of their everyday environment. By juxtaposing laypersons’ images with expert images from colleagues in the ~eld, Lynch revealed a fundamental disconnect between the goals of experts and the objectives of average citizens.
13 Facilited by the federal government’s National Resources Planning Board and deepening relations between military experts and urban leaders in a wartime climate, during the 1940s planning became institutionalized in municipal government. As federal programs allocated money for civil defense and war production, they pushed local governments to administer these programs. For example, the Lanham Act funded more than four thousand public works projects between 1941 and 1946. As Thomas Hanchett has documented, mayors quickly discovered how local priorities could ~nd funding if they could demonstrate relevance to the broad goal of strengthening national defense.