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By Robert Osgood

During this perceptive learn of the schooling of disabled teenagers, Robert Osgood describes the grown of Boston and its faculties as either regular and a countrywide chief between city facilities throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. He heavily examines the emergence of person courses that catered to scholars officially pointed out as having certain wishes: intermediate faculties and ungraded periods; 3 separate courses for college kids with disciplinary difficulties; the city's groundbreaking day institution for deaf young children; distinct sessions for mentally retarded childrens; and different courses confirmed among 1908 and 1913. Osgood describes those courses and their family with one another, and likewise the rationales provided for his or her institution and help. This unique account graphically depicts how styles of integration and segregation in specific schooling shifted through the years in Boston, and offers a starting place for carrying on with the present-day dialogue of the politics and realities of inclusion.

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Bar- Page 19 bara Solomon summarizes the general view of the Irishman held by "Yankees" at the time: The lowly peasant from the Emerald Isle was ignorant, shiftless, credulous, impulsive, mechanically inept, and boastful of the Old Country.  .  . " 13 Generations would be required to strengthen the status and wealth of those of Irish heritage in Boston, but slowly they were able to relocate in other neighborhoods and develop some all-important political influence. The first Irish mayor was elected in the 1880s, and by the early twentieth century the Irish had gained control of Boston politics.

Another section of Dorchester, Washington Village, joined in 1855. The town of Roxbury was added in 1868 and in 1870 the rest of Dorchester. Then, on January 5, 1874, Boston annexed the communities of Charlestown, Brighton, and West Roxbury. The final annexation occurred on New Year's Day 1912 with the addition of nearby Hyde Park. 5 As Boston's land area increased, so did its population. The first official United States Census in 1790 recorded 18,320 residents of Boston; by 1830 61,392 people claimed Boston as their home.

That, coupled with an unsteady supply of regional products available for trade and the expansion of other American ports, reduced Boston's relative stature as an American seaport. To compensate, the city's merchants used much of the money previously invested in trade as capital for developing regional industries, which produced such goods as textiles and shoes. Boston thus became a major banking and financing center, second only to New York nationally. It supplied investment capital for much of New England's industrial Page 12 growth (although its own industrial capacity grew relatively slowly).

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