By Claus Zimmermann (auth.), Claus Zimmermann, Robert G. Dean, Valeri Penchev, Henk Jan Verhagen (eds.)
Coast strains were and nonetheless are the primary traces of civilization world wide with nonetheless expanding strain from either side – the hinterland and the ocean – with all its foreseeable and unforeseeable affects via nature or mankind. whereas the reaction of nature to such affects is versatile within the approach that every one morphological alterations with all of the effects are tolerated as a part of the procedure, humanity can't tolerate temporary or long term alterations with no being threatened in its actual and low in cost lifestyles. The pursuits of this complicated learn Workshop (ARW) on Environmentally pleasant Coastal constructions were:
- to give a contribution to the serious overview of latest wisdom within the box of coastal and environmental protection;
- to spot instructions for destiny study in that area;
- to advertise shut operating relationships among scientists from various international locations and with diverse expert experience.
The most up-to-date developments in learn on coastal and environmental safeguard have been summarized and built throughout the assembly. Seventeen papers are provided during this e-book, trying to hide all similar features as thoroughly as attainable – coast, engineering constructions, water, sediments, ecosystems of their complex interplay.
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Additional info for Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection Structures Varna, Bulgaria 25–27 May 2004
These actions have made much of the shoreline relatively stable, fluctuating between periods of erosion and accretion. The extensive man-made dune system that has been developed over the years along the western portion of Cape May Point has been particularly effective is providing shore protection for that area. However, while these efforts have for the most part “held-the-line” in most shoreline sections with regard to erosion, that “line” is at a critical position. There is virtually no buffer to deal with forces due to storm events, which can severely damage the area.
The general conclusion was that with a sufficient packing density of nv < 0. 4 and a normal designed secondary layer, the construction is stable, but that a somewhat different stability curve must be used (see figure); the erosion in the secondary layer will never be more than three times the Dn50 of the secondary layer. , 2002) Both for cubes as well as for Tetrapods the required placement density can be achieved by individual placing with cranes. Normally Cubes are dumped from a position around the waterline (this saves much time); it was found that the required placement density can be achieved also by dumping, provided the water depth is not more than approximately five times the block size.
Placement has to be done carefully, according to strict guidance of engineers of Core-Loc. Last year, Delta Marine Consultants, from the Netherlands, has presented a new block, the Xbloc, which according to model tests, is nearly as stable as the Core-Loc, and can also be applied in a single layer without problems. , 2003). Figure 2: Stability of a single layer and a double layer of Tetrapods (DeJong, 2003) Although the Xbloc is smoother than natural rock, the overtopping is less. This is mainly caused by the fact that the block has a higher void ratio than natural rock (recent research by Klabbers (2004)).