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By Baker L.A. (ed.)

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PVC joints and fittings. PVC pipe may be joined by a bell-and-spigot push-on joint in large diameters. In the push-on method, either (1) a rubber gasket set in a groove in the bell end or (2) a double bell coupling provides the necessary seal. Injection-molded PVC fittings are available in sizes up to 8 in. (200 mm), and fabricated fittings are available in larger sizes. Cast-iron, ductile-iron, and cast-steel fittings are also often used. Figure 2-21 illustrates the use of a restrained fitting on PVC pipe.

Concrete pipe is available with various types of liners and reinforcement. The four types in common use in the United States and Canada are 1. 2. 3. 4. Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe Bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipe Reinforced concrete cylinder pipe Reinforced concrete noncylinder pipe Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe has been made in the United States since 1942. Two general types are manufactured: lined-cylinder pipe (Figure 2-22) and embedded-cylinder pipe (Figure 2-23).

Mechanical joints are more expensive than some other joints but they make a very positive seal and require little technical expertise by installers. The joints also allow some deflection of the pipe at installation. They provide considerable flexibility in the event there is ground settlement after the pipe is installed. Ball-and-socket joints. Ball-and-socket joints are special-purpose joints, most commonly used for intakes and river crossings. Their great advantages are that they provide for a large deflection (up to 15°) and are positively connected so they won’t come apart.

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