By Dr. Bertrand Chateau, Dr. Bruno Lapillonne (auth.)
The fIrst oil situation of 1973-74 and the questions it raised within the monetary and social fIelds drew awareness to power matters. business societies, accustomed for 2 many years or extra to strength sufficiently effortless to provide and inexpensive to devour that it used to be considered inexhaustible, started to query their power destiny. The stories undertaken at the moment, and because, on a countrywide, local, or international point have been over-optimistic. the matter appeared uncomplicated adequate to unravel. at the one hand, a definite variety of assets: coal, the abundance of which was once came upon, or really rediscovered oil, resource of all of the difficulties ... in truth, the issues looked as if it would come, if now not from oil itself (an effortless explanation), then from those that produced it with no relatively possessing it, and from those that owned it with no fairly keep an eye on ling it ordinary fuel, moment simply to grease and not more compromised uranium, all of whose provides had now not been stored, yet whose assets weren't in query solar power, multiform and very inexhaustible thermonuclear fusion, and geothermal power, and so on. nonetheless, power intake, notwithstanding over the top maybe, was once symbolic of growth, improvement, and elevated health. The originality of the strength rules organize considering the fact that 1974 lies within the truth they now not aimed to supply (or import) extra, yet to eat much less. They sought, and nonetheless search, what may be emphatically referred to as the keep an eye on of strength consump tion, or quite the regulate of strength demand.
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Additional info for Energy Demand: Facts and Trends: A Comparative Analysis of Industrialized Countries
Where homes were equipped with hot water systems long before the other countries of the EEC, the percentage of homes equipped with hot water installations moved from about 30-40% in 1960 to 75-95% in 1975. Denmark and Federal Republic of Germany have now reached the U. K. at saturation level, and should be joined sometime in the next decade by the other countries of the EEC. The fact that dwellings tend increasingly to be equipped with baths and showers has played an important part in the increase in hot water needs in dwellings which already have hot water.
Thus the share of households possessing electric cookers rose in the U. K. from 25% in 1955 to 45% in 1978 [8, 66] and in Federal Republic of Germany from 20% in 1953 to 68% in 1975 ; although we do not have sufficiently long statistical series for other countries, it is certain that, for example, Denmark and the U. S. A. underwent similar developments. In France, Italy and the Netherlands electric cookers have been far slower in penetrating the market. 13 gives the breakdown of the use of gas and electricity at the present time in a certain number of industrialized countries.
S. A. If we now look at the average useful energy needs both within flats and individual houses, then the differences between countries are considerably reduced: they range between 40 to 50 GJ in blocks of flats (we have not used the figures for the U. K. which would seem inaccurate). 7 times more, depending on the country, than flats. In order to offset the effect of the size factor, we have evaluated specific heat needs per m 2 of dwelling: the result shows only a slight difference between individual houses and blocks of flats, which tends to prove that the effect of better average insulation in flats (smaller surface area in contact with the outside) is largely cancelled out by the increase in inside temperature induced by collective heating systems (see above).