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By W. A. M. Hijnen

The general objective of this publication is to provide default values for the micro-organisms removal or inactivation credits of universally used approaches in water therapy (MEC or MIC). those MEC or MIC values were calculated from overseas literature info which published a excessive edition in capacities or logremoval. The parameters and procedure regulate parameters affecting the awarded capacities are defined. This re-creation describes the state of the art development in learn on traditional therapy, coagulation and flocculation, swift granular filtration, sluggish sand filtration and UV disinfection. This name belongs to KWR Watercycle examine Institute sequence

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Sample text

V Polio Cph MS2 Salm. Adeno Cph Cph Cph Cph Polio Coxs. v Coxs. 1 The DEC-values (^SD error bars) of the RGF and RGFgac processes observed in literature for viruses and phages operated under different process conditions (X-axis titles from top to bottom: ni ¼ no information; first line ¼ contact time in minutes; second line ¼ Water: WW or DW ¼ waste or drinking water; third line: Filter materials An-Sa ¼ anthracite, sand, EC ¼ expanded clay; fourth line ¼ organisms: Rota ¼ rotavirus, Cph ¼ environmental coliphages, Ent.

It should be emphasised however, that such monitoring programmes should be carefully planned and organised to obtain a time-related and paired data-base and to avoid that some relevant process conditions cannot be evaluated. 2 (conventional treatment) it was concluded that the effect of this weighing strongly depends on the distribution of DEC-values of the studies with high FS-indexes. When DEC-values of these studies are equally distributed over the range of values the impact will be small. 5).

5 log were from the study of Emelko et al. 2001 and were monitored during coagulation failures. 4 this study will be described in more detail. The DEC-values of 43 log were observed in the studies of Swertfeger et al. (1999), Yates et al. (1997b), Dugan et al. (2004) and the eight highest values came from the study of Emelko et al. (2001) with small scale filters. These removal data were obtained in a diverging experimental set up where a suspension of pre-coagulated oocysts on laboratory scale was dosed to the influent of the filter bed.

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