By American Water Works Association
This handbook offers details on electrodialysis and electrodialysis reversal applied sciences in water treatment.
This sincerely written handbook explains ideas of operation, functions for water remedy, gear, method layout, bills, pretreatment and posttreatment, install, operation, upkeep, and disposal of focus
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Additional resources for Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal
Of the AWWA Membrane Processes Conference in Baltimore, Md. : American Water Works Association. C. Lozier. 1993. Membrane Process Selection and the Use of Bench and Pilot Tests. In Proc. of the AWWA Membrane Processes Conference in Baltimore, Md. : American Water Works Association. J.
The concentrate must also meet antidegradation regulations. 34 ELECTRODIALYSIS Problem constituents in concentrate disposal to surface waters include hydrogen sulfide, dissolved oxygen, chlorides, radium 226, radium 228, gross alpha radioactivity, fluoride, and metals. The pH and conductivity of the concentrate are other relevant concerns. The cost of disposal to a surface water is affected by the concentrate flow rate, the need for pretreatment to meet regulatory standards, transportation, operational costs, and outfall structures.
Figure 3-3 Approximate specific power consumption for ultra-low-pressure RO, low-pressure RO, and electrodialysis reversal systems be removed, the higher the energy requirement. 8 A h (see the discussion on Faraday’s law in chapter 2). ⋅ General Cost Factors Some costs are generally applicable to various types of water treatment systems, such as costs involved in land and site development, wells or intake structures, storage, pumping, construction, and financing. Planning for anticipated system demands may make a larger system a sound investment because unit cost decreases as the system size is increased.