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By Andre G. Frank

Why, whereas Europe, North the United States, and Australia have constructed, have Africa, a lot of Asia, and Latin the US remained underdeveloped? Andre Gunder Frank units out to reply to this easy query through displaying how international capital accumulation has resulted in the differentiation of those areas in the unmarried world-embracing economic climate. Unequal alternate among areas, mixed with the differential transformation of effective, social, and political family inside of areas, has ended in the capitalist improvement of a few parts and to the underdevelopment of others.

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Though Asian production of commodities for export to Europe (and reexport to Mrica and America) no doubt intervened in the autonomous transformation of modes of production in Asia, it did not substantially redirect this development until much later, except in particular limited instances. The earliest relatively far-reaching transformations of the modes of production occurred in parts of South-East Asia where Islamic, Portuguese and Dutch rivalries and political intervention in local rivalries began to extend local incorporation in the expansion of mercantile capitalism from simple trade to production for export.

In the cargoes, therefore, ofthe greater part of European ships which sail to India, silver has generally been one of the most valuable articles. It is the most valuable article in the Acapulco ships which sail to Manila. The silver of the new continent seems in this manner to be one of the principal commodities by which the commerce between the two extremities of the old one is carried on, and it is by means of it, in a great measure, that those distant parts of the world are connected with one another (207) ...

The importance of this support should not be underestimated ... (Ribeiro 10-12) This wealth of explanatory factors adduced by Ribeiro really reflects, we believe, considerable poverty in the explanatory power of his argument: the reference to climatic factors to explain migratory differences is inconsistent with the evidence of voluntary European worldwide migration from and to a large variety of climates and with the fact of forced migration of Asian, African and Latin American Indian labour from one climate to another; and in so far as climate is adduced as explanatory of development or underdevelopment it would be inadmissible to accept the long-since scientifically discredited arguments of Huntington, and it would be necessary to relate climatic and geological factors to the associated New World Development and Underdevelopment 33 modes of production, which Ribeiro does not do.

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