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Based on chloroplast DNA they distinguished seven haplotypes, among which two dominated: no. 1 (light) and no. 6. 5 Primary production of the vegetation of Europe measured by the MODIS sensor at three time intervals in 2001. Light areas have high weekly primary production. 6 Distribution pattern of oak haplotypes in Switzerland according to M´aty´as & Sperisen (2001). This reveals the post-glacial invasion route. ) some 8000 years ago. The known retreat areas for oak during glaciation were Spain, southern Italy, the Balkan peninsula and probably Greece.

It is difficult to decide whether the normalizing involved is ideal for applications: when transformation is really needed, many researchers prefer standardization (adjusting vector length and variance) to normalization (adjusting vector length only). 4). 3 Contingency testing Contingency testing is a statistical approach, focusing on the joint occurrence of objects. In the case of relev´es, these are common species. If there are many, one assumes that the relev´es are similar. From a statistical point of view the question arises whether the number of common species is above, equal to or below expectation.

Robur and (d) Q. cerris, photograph WSL, Genetic ecology). Centre: rank data (flowering order of three plant species). Right: metric data (height and stem diameter of a tree). g. 3). 1: Nominal data are recorded according to a list of possible states. 1 and labelled by letters. These are (a) Quercus petraea, (b) Q. pubescens, (c) Q. robur and (d) Q. cerris. Data of this type are restricted in the application of mathematical operations. Leaf types are either the same or different, thus the operations to be applied are = and =.

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