By American Water Works Association
Machine types of water distribution structures are instruments that experience advanced through the years to aid water procedure designers, operators, and executives convey secure, trustworthy water at cost effective. This guide offers water execs the fundamentals of distribution process modeling, together with info on version education, method exams and measurements, steady-state and extended-period simulations, and water caliber modeling. It additionally covers facts assortment, version layout, calibration, and the various makes use of for distribution method desktop versions.
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Additional resources for Computer Modeling of Water Distribution Systems
When multiple PRVs service a single area, potential exists for the valves to work against each other, creating pressure waves as they try to reduce the operating pressures. Setting the pressure points to a slightly different grade line, making one of the valves predominate, sometimes alleviates this problem. Pressure-sustaining valves measure the pressure on the upstream end of the valve and throttle to maintain a setback pressure in the system. They are often used on long transmission mains that terminate at a large reservoir.
The sampling includes all combinations of pipe sizes and materials, and also old and new pipes. Larger pipes tend t o have higher coefficients. If there are unlined cast iron pipes in the system, they should definitely be included in the sample, as C-factors vary widely from less than 25 t o over 100, depending on the pipe age and water quality. A map from the 1940s helps to identify unlined pipes because the use of unlined cast iron pipes ceased in the 1950s. It is important t o take C-factor measurements near sources where treatment processes have coated the inside of pipes.
I 1 4 . 305 = m/sec In. 4 = mm Figure 3-3 Typical velocity profiles at two different flow rates Magnetic Meters Magnetic meters consist of a coil of wire around the pipe through which a current is induced as ions in the water pass through the pipe. These meters are calibrated so that the induced electrical current correlates to the flow rate in the pipeline. Magnetic meters are usually installed permanently, although temporary installations are also possible. METER TESTS A meter test compares master meter registration to flow rates measured by another instrument, such as a test meter or an inserted probe.