By Richard R. Fay
A significant objective of listening to learn is to give an explanation for how the human auditory approach regularly capabilities and to aid establish the explanations of and coverings for listening to impairment. Experimental techniques to this examine utilize animal versions which are built, evaluated and proven to figure out what might be generalized from one species to a different. by way of investigating the constructions, physiological services and listening to functions of varied species, comparative listening to examine establishes the organic and evolutionary context for such types. This quantity brings jointly our present figuring out of the auditory structures of 2 of the main vertebrate sessions, fish and amphibians. It overcomes the differing theoretical and experimental paradigms that underlie such a lot paintings on those teams and treats either fish and amphibians jointly in such a lot chapters so as to tackle broader comparative issues.
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Extra info for Comparative Hearing: Fish and Amphibians
Metin C, Frost DO (1991) Visual responses on neurons in somatosensory cortex of hamster with experimentally induced retinal projections to somatosensory thalamus. In: Finlay BL, Innocenti G, Scheich H (eds) The Neocortex: Ontogeny and Phylogeny. London: Plenum Press, pp. 219-228. Michelsen A (1992) Hearing and sound communciation in small animals: evolutionary adaptation to the law of physics. In: Webster DB, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. 61-78. Moore DR (1992) Developmental plasticity of the brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei.
Hearing in Two Worlds 37 Moon 1993). , FGF-3), and others (Fekete 1996; Fritzsch et a1. 1998), some of which may respond to retinoic acid. In this context it is important that a tentative connection between the transformation of limbs and the ear was recently noticed in fossils, too (Ahlberg et al. 1996), another system in which retinoic acid plays a major role in pattern formation (Fritzsch et a1. 1998). Clearly, more details are needed before the evolutionary reorganizations in the is ear with their adaptive importance for sound pressure reception can be understood in terms of the underlying modifications of gene expression patterns.
This scheme shows the evolution of efferents in craniate vertebrates. Hagfish have a facial motor nucleus (black) but are the only craniates without efferents to the ear. Lampreys have efferents to the ear (gray), the cell bodies of which are coextensive with facial motoneurons (black). In elasmobranchs there is some segregation and a bilateral distribution and projection of efferents. This bilateral distribution of efferents and their fibers is likely primitive for jawed vertebrates. Fmgs and bony fish (not shown) have ipsilateral efferents coextensive with facial motoneurons, whereas salamanders show bilateral distribution of efferents.