Download Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems by B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung PDF

By B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)

In the previous five years there was a tremendous elevate of proof that the ion channels activated by means of mechanical strength are universal to a large choice of phone kinds. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels shape a small share of the full channel inhabitants. they're now present in greater than 30 telephone forms from E. coli, yeast, to plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells, the place they happen in almost all kinds of cells from bone to soft muscle, in addition to neurons. nearly all of MS channels are permeable to monovalent cations and are a bit selective for okay+ over Na +. How­ 2 ever, there are numerous experiences of anion-selective MS channels, MS Ca + channels, and MS channels with huge conductances that don't dis­ criminate markedly among cations and anions. lately B. Hille has postulated attainable evolutionary relationships among different types of ion channels, with mechanosensitive channels predating even the eukaryotes. voltage-gated channel kinds originate with the stem eukaryotes, as deduced from the presence of voltage-gated okay+ 2 and Ca + channels in protozoa, algae, or larger vegetation. Agonist-gated chan­ nels in addition to voltage-gated Na + channels seem with the earliest metazoan animals, as deduced from the presence of Na + spikes and quickly chemical synapses in cnidaria (coelenterates), ctenophores, and all larger animals.

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4 Physiological Function of Mechanosensitive Channels in Walled Organisms . . . 1 Membrane Stretching in Plants and Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Mechanosensitivity of Plants and Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MS Channels as Mechanotransducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 20 20 22 25 27 29 30 31 33 35 35 1 Introduction The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stresses in the environment is almost certainly a universal feature of all cells.

Can Bioi Publ, Guelph, Ontario Bartnicki-Garcia S, Lipman E (1972) The bursting tendency of hyphal tips of fungi: presumptive evidence for a delicate balance between wall synthesis and wall lysis in apical growth. J Gen MicrobioI73:487-500 Bear CE (1990) A nonselective cation channel in rat liver cells is activated by membrane stretch. Am J Physiol 258:C421-C428 Benolken RM, Jacobsen SL (1970) Response properties of a sensory hair excised from Venus's fly trap. J Gen PhysioI56:64-82 Blomberg A, Adler L (1989) Roles of glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) in acquired osmotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Yeast have only three channels in their plasma membrane: (1) a depolarization-activated K+-specific channel (Gustin et al. 1986; Gomez-Lagunas et al. 1989); (2) the nonselective MS channel; and (3) a multiple-conductance state, cation-specific channel (Gustin, unpubl. data). The latter channel is seen only rarely. Therefore, if K+ is removed from recording solutions, the MS channel can be studied by itself in electrophysiological recordings, even in whole-cell mode. A disadvantage of yeast spheroplasts (and plant cells, Schroeder 1988) for patch clamp studies is that formation of a gigaohm seal is more difficult than for animal cells.

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