Download Cognitive Foundations of Grammar by Bernd Heine PDF

By Bernd Heine

The most functionality of language is to show that means. for this reason, argues Bernd Heine in those pages, the query of why language is based how it is needs to to begin with be responded as regards to this functionality. Linguistic motives provided when it comes to different exponents of language constitution (for instance, syntax) tend to spotlight peripheral or epi-phenomenal--rather than central--characteristics of language constitution. Heine offers an excellent introductory therapy of the ways that language constitution (that is, grammar) and language utilization could be defined on the subject of the techniques underlying human conceptualization and communication.Exploring a space of linguistics that has constructed just recently and is quickly increasing, Cognitive Foundations of Grammar will entice scholars of linguistics, psychology, and anthropology, particularly these attracted to grammaticalization processess.

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4. Why are cardinal numerals treated morphosyntactically as having both nominal and adjectival properties? 5. In the same vein, why is it that lower numerals are likely to have many characteristics in common with adjectives, while higher numerals tend to be more nounlike? 6. , 'plus') in complex numerals frequently resemble function words used for the expression of either accompaniment ('with') or superessive location ('on, upon'; see Greenberg 1978c:265; Hurford 1987:237)? We have answered these questions over the course of this chapter.

Ir-kon 'house'. The number '20' is located in the intersection of the two systems—that is, it has two contrasting expressions, as can be seen in (3). PL 2 Eastern Pomo of California has a vigesimal system. But there appear to be no expressions relating to the body-part model; rather, '20' is expressed as xai-di-lema-tek 'a full stick' and multiples of '20' are referred to as so many 'sticks' (Farris 1990:179). In the Balese language of eastern Zaire, the number value ' 100' marks the intersection between the two contrasting systems (Vorbichler 1965:94-6).

2 Variation In spite of the ubiquity of the body-part model in the creation of numeral systems, we also find structures that suggest alternative models. While the patterns sketched in the preceding section appear to be statistically predominant in the languages of the world, we nevertheless find numerals, or even entire numeral systems, that cannot be explained with reference to the body-part model. Such systems may have any of the numerals '3', '4', '6', or '9' as their base and, accordingly, may be called ternary, quaternary, senary, and nonary systems, respectively.

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