By J. V. Beckett
Financial historians have lengthy favored the real function of the Lowther kin within the constructing Whitehaven from a tiny fishing village right into a flourishing commercial centre. In Coal and Tobacco, Dr Beckett has tried, by way of analysing the west Cumberland economic system, and the Lowther's entrepreneurial position, to bare the very important significance of the coal undefined. considering a lot of the coal was once bought in eire, west Cumberland moved right into a courting with Dublin which was once just like, albeit on a smaller scale than, the extra recognized hyperlink among Tyneside and London. The coal alternate supplied the very important financial underpinning, yet geographical concerns support to provide an explanation for Whitehaven's different buying and selling pursuits. Dr Beckett's significant learn relies at the Lowther papers, and divulges the an important kin involvement in those occasions. This ebook files Lowther's tale: how shut he got here to luck, why he failed, and the impression of his objectives on west Cumberland.
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Additional info for Coal and Tobacco: The Lowthers and the Economic Development of West Cumberland, 1660-1760
Broughton (Whanon, from 1738 Somerset) 19. Aspatria (Somerset) 20. Bolton/Westward (Somerset) NB Points given on the map indicate the place name and not necessarily the exact location of the colliery, since this cannot always be ascenalned. - - Boundary of the West Cumberland coalfield 0 8 km 0 5 miles Collieries on the west Cumberland coalfield during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries COAL : M O N O P O LY AND COMPETITION towards Cockermouth. Harrington was developed by Henry Curwen, for exporting coal, in the second half of the eighteenth century.
No obvious explanation exists for the variations in this list, except that much of the increase was ac counted for by property acquisitions. The jump in 1 738, for example, followed the purchase of the manors of Moresby and Distington the previous year. Rent increases must also have played a part. 3 . Rentalfigures for the Lowther estate, r686-r754. * Year Rental Year Rental £ 1 686 1 687 1 690 1693 1 728 1 730 1 73 1 679 728 809 821 1 ,502 1 ,032 1 ,797 Year £ 1 732 1 733 1 734 1 735 1 736 1 737 1 738 1 , 1 70 1 ,743 1 ,938 2,072 2, 1 39 2,282 2,603 Rental £ 1 74 1 1 742 1 743 1 744 1 75 1 1 754 2,965 2,983 2,786 2,830 3,455 3,320 • These figures include fines charged on change of tenant (on customaryhold property) although these were never very substantial ; average revenue derived from them amounted to only £32 a year between 1 738 and 1 754.
It was possible that in time the Irish would be able to supply their own needs. Again, the fear was always present that Cumberland would lose its competitiveness by comparison with other English, Welsh and Scottish coalfields enjoying coastal proximity to Ireland. 4 Each of these possible problems raised its head from time to time, only to prove ephemeral. Demand from Ireland grew steadily, punctuated by short and sometimes sharp depressions which were naturally worrying to the west Cumberland owners.