By Kerry J. Kennedy (auth.), David L. Grossman, Wing On Lee, Kerry J. Kennedy (eds.)
Based on case experiences of eleven societies within the world’s so much dynamic quarter, this e-book indications a brand new path of research on the intersection of citizenship schooling and the curriculum. Following their winning quantity, Citizenship schooling in Asia and the Pacific: strategies and concerns (published as No. 14 during this series), the editors, commonly considered as leaders within the box within the Asia-Pacific zone, have long gone past large citizenship schooling frameworks to ascertain the realities, tensions and pressures that impression the formation of the citizenship curriculum. bankruptcy authors from diversified societies have addressed basic questions: (1) how is citizenship schooling featured within the present curriculum reform time table by way of either coverage contexts and values; and (2) to what quantity do the reforms in citizenship schooling replicate present debates in the society? From comparative research of those eleven case reports the editors have stumbled on a posh photo of curriculum reform that shows deep tensions among worldwide and native agendas. On one hand, there's huge facts of an more and more universal coverage rhetoric within the debates approximately citizenship schooling. at the different, it truly is glaring that this discourse doesn't unavoidably expand to citizenship curriculum, which in such a lot areas is still built in keeping with distinct social, political and cultural contexts. even if the focal point is on Islamic values in Pakistan, an rising discourse approximately chinese language ‘democracy’, a nostalgic conservatism in Australia, or a continuous nation-building undertaking in Malaysia – the circumstances express that particular social values and ideologies build nationwide citizenship curricula in Asian contexts even during this more and more globalized era.
This striking number of case experiences of a various workforce of societies informs and enriches realizing of the complicated dating among citizenship schooling and the curriculum either domestically and globally.
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Additional resources for Citizenship Curriculum in Asia and the Pacific
A new approach to the curriculum, namely Target and Target Related Assessment (TTRA), later renamed Target Oriented Curriculum (TOC), was enforced within a span of 2-3 years after the inception of the idea in 1992. In higher education, a unified three-year university system was forced upon all higher institutions, all aligned to the British university system. A policy to increase university places to 18% of the relevant age was introduced as a means of reducing the emigration flux. Further, a unitary university system was adopted to allow most former polytechnics and colleges to be converted to universities to upgrade the higher education system in Hong Kong (Lee & Bray, 1995).
According to this perspective, the power of the nation state is transferred downward to non-governmental institutions and upward to transnational agencies (such as the World Trade Organization) or a supranational power (such as the European Union). The third response recognises multiple citizen identities of an individual, such as an individual being a member of the community, the nation, the region, the globe, etc. (for the third response, see also Lee, 2002c). “Delocalised Nationalisation” The Hong Kong case shows features of these three responses, but this study adds more complexity to the global-local tensions.
The colonial government attempted to initiate various changes in the education system, and these changes were both broad in scope and quick in pace. For example, obvious changes were made in the contents and teaching approaches in a number of subjects such as History, Geography, Economics and Public Affairs (EPA), Government and Public Affairs (GPA) and Social Studies in secondary school, and a new subject General Studies was introduced in primary school (Curriculum Development Council, 1997). A new approach to the curriculum, namely Target and Target Related Assessment (TTRA), later renamed Target Oriented Curriculum (TOC), was enforced within a span of 2-3 years after the inception of the idea in 1992.