Download China: A History, Volume 2: From the Great Qing Empire by Harold M. Tanner PDF

By Harold M. Tanner

Now to be had in volumes, this obtainable, but rigorous, creation to the political, social, and cultural background of China presents a balanced and considerate account of the improvement of chinese language civilization from its beginnings to the current day. quantity covers from the good Qing Empire in the course of the People's Republic of China (1644-2009).

The publication offers a finished view of chinese language tradition, together with advancements in literature and the humanities. A beneficiant number of illustrations allows comprehension of and delight within the visible arts.

Each quantity contains abundant illustrations, an entire supplement of maps, a chronological desk, wide notes, concepts for additional examining and an index.

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Extra info for China: A History, Volume 2: From the Great Qing Empire through The People's Republic of China 1644-2009

Example text

With no one powerful enough to maintain peace between them, the various feudal states competed with each other, forming and breaking alliances and fighting wars, the larger states absorbing the smaller ones throughout the Eastern Zhou’s Springs and Autumns period (770–475 BCE) until ten major states faced off against each other in the Warring States period (475–221 BCE). The three schools of thought known as Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism all have their origins in the Eastern Zhou. Confucius and his followers Mencius and Xunzi argued that order could be restored if the elite would simply return to the correct practice of ritual behavior in their family and public lives and that the essence of successful rulership was for a feudal lord or king to practice morality so that his exemplary behavior and his care for his subjects would transform all around him.

1 Some Jurchens practiced settled agriculture, interacted with Ming officials, and learned the Chinese language. The Jurchens, after all, had a long history of interaction with China: in the 12th century one branch of the Jurchens had established the Jin dynasty and ruled northern China until they, in turn, were conquered by the Mongols in 1234. Manchuria beyond the Liao Valley was still a land of Jurchen tribes whose interaction with China and Chinese culture was relatively limited. The Jurchens lived in permanent villages, but some raised livestock, which they moved from one pasture to another in a seminomadic lifestyle.

Together, the Manchus and their subjects transformed the Ming into a part of the Manchu Qing Empire, and the Manchu aristocracy into minority rulers of a realm that had its economic, political, geographical, and cultural center of gravity in China Proper. The Ming capital consisted of two parts. In the north was the original walled city with the imperial palace, government offices, and the residences of princes and officials. 13 When they took over Beijing, the Manchus cleared the north city of Han Chinese inhabitants to make way for the Banner forces and Manchu aristocrats.

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