By Wally Welker (auth.), Edward G. Jones, Alan Peters (eds.)
The cerebral cortex, specifically that half in most cases particular "neocortex," is likely one of the hallmarks of mammalian evolution and reaches its maximum dimension, particularly conversing, and its widest structural range within the human mind. The evolution of this constitution, as striking for the large numbers of neurons that it includes as for the diversity of behaviors that it controls, has been of abiding curiosity to many generations of neuroscientists. but few theories of cortical evo lution were proposed and none has stood the try out of time. particularly, no idea has been profitable in bridging the evolutionary hole that looks to exist among the pallium of non mammalian vertebrates and the neocortex of mam mals. certainly this stems largely from the swift divergence of non mammalian and mammalian types and the inability of latest species whose telencephalic wall could be visible as having transitional features. The mono treme cortex, for instance, is definitely mammalian in association and that of no dwelling reptile comes with reference to comparable to it. but anatomists resembling Ramon y Cajal, on interpreting the finer information of cortical constitution, have been struck by means of the similarities in neuronal shape, relatively of the pyramidal cells, and their predisposition to laminar alignment shared via representatives of all vertebrate classes.
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Extra resources for Cerebral Cortex: Comparative Structure and Evolution of Cerebral Cortex, Part II
40 DAYS FIVE MONTHS SIX MONTHS EIGHT MONTHS NINE MONTHS ( ( ) " . t. . ' -'~J Figure 10. Development of the human brain viewed from the left side showing a succession of embryonic and fetal stages. The top row of drawings of embryonic stages are enlarged to an arbitrary common size to clarify their structural details. This figure nicely illustrates the relatively greater increase of the telencephalon, the smooth oval shape of the cerebrum at 100 days, the beginning of operculation over the insula at 6 months, and the progressive gyrification and lobation from 7-9 months.
That the skull is not a major restraining factor is suggested by several facts: (1) The 29 DETERMINANTS OF GYRI AND SULCI 30 CHAPTER 10 Table V. Literature on Ontogeny of Cerebral Cortex Historical Bischoff (1870) Cunningham (1890a) Donaldson (1895) Economo and Koskinas (1925) Glasser (1916) Hochstetter (1924) Huxley (1932) Huxley et at. (1941) Jacobson (1978) Schmidt (1862) Thompson (1942) Weiss (1955) General Connolly (1950) Di Benedetta et al. (1980) Dodgson (1962) Edelman (1986) Edelman and Thiery (1985) Edelman et al.
Coronal section at midsylvian level of left hemisphere showing increased width of gyri dorsally and decreased width of gyri laterally. Convolutions in opercular regions, as well as in insula, were more numerous and much shallower than normal. Defect was bilateral and approximately symmetrical. Dorsally, the cortex became pachygyric (abnormally broad, thick, and fewer in number). Disruptions in migration resulted in incomplete formation of layers II and III as well as heterotopic neurons subjacent to the abnormally convoluted cortex.