By S.C. Wood (auth.), Mogens L. Glass, Stephen C. Wood (eds.)
The concentration of this booklet is the evolution of cardiovascular and breathing keep an eye on in vertebrates. lifestyles originated in water, which has consistently altering temperatures and O2 degrees. Fish gills can extract as much as eighty% in their encouraged O2, simply because they've got a countercurrent bloodstream. Oxygen sensors were stumbled on in the gill arches of ray-finned fish corresponding to carp and trout, and those O2 sensors reveal the encouraged water and the capillary blood.
Very most probably, land vertebrates and the lungfish arose as a sister team, and either own genuine lungs. Lungfish comprise 6 species, inhabiting shallow lakes or rivers, while the second one ramification contains all of the land vertebrates. a potential ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates has been chanced on in China, and this fossil (Styloichthys) bridges a niche. residing 417 million years in the past, it can signify one of many final ramifications ahead of the typical ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates. moreover, quite consistent atmospheric O2 degrees enable a joint acid-base legislation through the lung and the kidney. Likewise, lungfish and land vertebrates percentage a critical keep watch over of pulmonary air flow, whereas the peripheral receptor contribution to acid-base law is minor.
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Additional info for Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects
The EMBO Journal 13:3456–3463 Marini AM, Matassi G, Raynal V, Andre B (1997a) A family of ammonium transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and Cellular Biology 17:4282–4293 Marini AM, Urrestarazu A, Beauwens R, Andre B (1997b) The Rh (rhesus) blood group polypeptides are related to NH+ 4 transporters. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 22:460–461 Marini AM, Matassi G, Raynal V, Andre B, Cartron JP, Cherif-Zahar B (2000) The human Rhesusassociated RhAG protein and a kidney homologue promote ammonium transport in yeast.
Expression levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and have been calculated using the delta–delta Ct method relative to the expression of Rhcg at 1 day post-fertilization (dpf). Values are means ± 1 SEM with N = 4 (expression data) or N = 8 (excretion data). (M. Braun, S. F. Perry, unpublished observations) and if, as suggested above, seawater interferes with acid trapping of NH3 , compensatory changes in the expression of Rh proteins may occur. The mangrove killifish demonstrated inducible expression of Rh proteins in both gills and skin when exposed to air (Hung et al.
2). 1 Passive Diffusion of NH3 Due to the interplay of pH, Tamm and electrical potential, a complete understanding of the mechanisms of ammonia excretion has been difficult to attain. However, while questions still remain, the consensus opinion is that the majority of ammonia excretion takes place at the gills as simple diffusion of NH3 from the blood to the water (Wood 1993; Wilkie 2002). The concentration of total ammonia found as NH3 intracellularly is low, but sufficient to maintain excretion down the NH3 partial pressure (PNH3 ) gradient from the blood to the water.