By Jean-Paul Sartre
Born in Paris in 1905, Sartre was once a professor of philosophy whilst he joined the French military on the outbreak of worldwide warfare II. Captured via the Germans, he was once published, after approximately a yr, in 1941. He instantly joined the French resistance as a journalist. within the postwar period Jean-Paul Sartre - thinker, critic, novelist, and dramatist - grew to become the most influential males of this century. He died in Paris in 1980.
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Extra resources for Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology
And so at last in Part Four we return to the In-itself. We are concerned with the In-itself from two fundamental points of view. First, how can we be in the midst of the In-itself without losing our freedom. Here we find the fullest exposition of Sartre’s ideas on freedom and facticity. Second, we discover that our fundamental relation to Being is such that we desire to appropriate it through either action, possession, or the attempt to become one with it. Analysis of these reactions leads us to the question of our original choice of Being, and it is here that Sartre outlines for us his existential psychoanalysis.
And here desire is positive, if at all, only on the intervening levels. As compared with Plato, Sartre’s view might appear the more negative (whether true or not is, of course, another question). If compared with Epicurus, on the other hand, Sartre’s position is seen to be definitely opposed to a philosophy which advocated the repression of all but the most moderate desires. Ataraxia is about as far removed from the existentialist ideal of passionate commitment as one can get. The divergency becomes still more apparent if we compare Sartre’s view with that of certain Eastern philosophies which identify desire with suffering and advocate the total annihilation of desire as a means of salvation.
P. 111) The interiority of the pre-reflective consciousness consists in the fact that for it to know itself and to be are the same; but this pure interiority can only be lived, not contemplated. ” When consciousness tries to turn back upon itself and contemplate itself, it can reflect on this interiority but only by making it an object. The Ego is the interiority of consciousness when reflected upon by itself. Although it stands as an object-pole of the unreflective attitude, it appears only in the world of reflection.