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By Adriel R. Bonilla

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2007). Gollrdge et al. (1990) isolated vancomycin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and E. rhusiopathiae from multiple blood cultures taken from a leukemic patient with septicemia. Additionally, the isolation of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli probiotics, specifically L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum and L. , 2005). It is well-known that bacterial translocation results in various negative clinical infections to the host. However, antibiotic-resistant probiotic translocation is even more detrimental to the health of the patient than the translocation of endogenous bacteria.

However, the European countries have more stringent point of view on the safety of bacterial products. The Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition (SCAN) in European countries proposed the criteria to assess the safety of microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and probiotics used in animals. In its 2001 opinion that was later revised in 2002, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) thresholds (mg/L) that categorize probiotics bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Propionibacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Bacillus species as antibiotic resistant or antibiotic susceptible have been evaluated (SCAN, 2003).

This transfer would result in negative therapeutic consequences, including the emergence of more virulent pathogenic bacteria that cannot be treated by a previous successful antibiotic regimen. The more virulent bacteria would require an increased antibiotic dosage or the use of more powerful antibiotics, which will incur higher treatment cost, in order to clear the infection. 14 Min-Tze Liong, Siok-Koon Yeo, Chiu-Yin Kuan et al. It is not uncommon that antibiotic resistance genes are transferred among microorganisms in the same habitat.

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