Download An Introduction to English Syntax by Jim Miller PDF

By Jim Miller

An advent to English Syntax discusses the significant techniques of syntax that are utilized in quite a lot of collage classes, in company, in educating and in speech treatment. The booklet offers with conventional thoughts that have been drastically subtle and prolonged over the last thirty years: what nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are and the way they are often well-known; what a subordinate clause is and the way sorts of subordinate clauses might be well-known; what matters and gadgets are. The booklet attracts out the connections among syntax and which means; particularly, chapters specialize in themes resembling demanding, temper and voice that are vital to using language and are of significant value in moment language studying.

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We now move on to look at constructions, the relatively general patterns that recur in a given language. Since words, phrases, clauses and sentences are all built out of smaller units according to particular patterns, the concept of construction is relevant to all areas of grammar. For instance, many, though clearly not all, words are built out of smaller bits; field consists of one stem. Fielded, as in fielded the ball, and fielder, as in cricket, are built from the stem plus a suffix, field + -ed and field + -er.

NON-COPULA, DECLARATIVE, PASSIVE, OBLIQUE OBJECT] d. The piano Frank bought for Jane. [NON-COPULA, DECLARATIVE, ACTIVE, OBLIQUE OBJECT, TOPIC] (8) a. Did Frank buy the piano for Jane? [NON-COPULA, INTERROGATIVE, YES–NO, ACTIVE, OBLIQUE OBJECT] b. Did Frank buy Jane the piano? [NON-COPULA, INTERROGATIVE, YES–NO, ACTIVE, DOUBLE OBJECT] c. Was the piano bought for Jane by Frank? 4 Relationships between constructions Two central ideas lie behind the use of the word ‘system’. One is that each of the above constructions shares certain properties with some of the other constructions; the other is that it is possible to specify the relationships between the constructions.

In (7a), the sequence of words/the phrase very heavy is the complement of is ; in (7b) it is the modifier of parcel. It turns up at the beginning of the spoken construction in (7c). In (7d) it is also the complement of is, but in a special emphatic construction. Very can be replaced by words such 02 pages 001-192 18/10/01 4:49 pm Page 15 CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE 15 as astonishingly, and the sequence can be made longer – astonishingly and frighteningly heavy – but can still be transposed, as shown in This parcel is astonishingly and frighteningly heavy, this astonishingly and frighteningly heavy parcel was delivered yesterday, What this parcel is is astonishingly and frighteningly heavy.

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