Download Advances in Disease Vector Research by Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris PDF

By Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)

This sequence explores how vectors (carriers of ailment brokers, comparable to bugs) collect, hold and to that end transmit pathogens to hosts. It covers the spectrum of vectors, together with companies of plant pathogens in addition to medically comparable pathogens. The Chapters in quantity 7 contain: 1. K. Gibb, J.W. Randles: Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and comparable viruses through the mirid Cyrto- peltis nicotianae. 2. N. Carter, R. Harrington: elements influencing aphid inhabitants dynamics and behaviour and the implications for virus unfold. three. R.H. Bagnall: Cyclic epidemics of aphid-borne potato viruses in Northern seed-potato-growing components. four. C.J. Andrews, R.C. Sinha: Interactions among barley yellow dwarf virus an infection and winter-stress tolerance in cereals. five. J.R. DeLoach, G. Spates: synthetic diets for blood feeding bugs: a assessment. 6. I. Maudlin: Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions between Tsetse immune approach, symbionts, and parasites. 7. C. Chastel, I. Humphery-Smith: Mosquito spiroplasmas. the 1st 4 chapters hide themes in plant virus transmission through bugs. the ultimate 3 chapters specialize in human and animal disorder institutions with bollid-feeding flies.

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In contrast, Wratten & Pearson (140) demonstrated in New Zealand that depletion of the polyphagous predator population resulted in higher populations of M. persicae on sugar beet plants, more plants infested with aphids, and also higher virus incidence [beet western yellows virus (BWYV)]. There were, however, no effects on sugar yields as virus levels were thought to have been too low to cause damage. Natural enemies may result in higher virus incidence if they disturb the aphids sufficiently for them to walk between plants.

R. padi can be very numerous on grasses also (122), which probably explains the large size of the autumn migration as the aphids emigrate in search of P. padus or cereals on which to overwinter (112). A greater understanding of the population dynamics of cereal aphids on grasses would lead to more accurate forecasting of autumn infections if combined with knowledge of virus epidemiology in grasses. 38 N. Carter and R. Harrington Unfortunately, there are differences in the epidemiologies of the strains of BYDV on grasses and cereals (S2).

An individual aphid will not fly unless conditions are between lower and upper thresholds for temperature, light intensity, windspeed, relative humidity, and rainfall (28, 48, 137). These thresholds vary between individuals and between the same individual on different occasions. The climatic factors influencing take-off must be measured in the crop . The crop canopy may provide enough protection to permit take-off when the windspeed recorded by standard meteorological stations would suggest that it is unlikely.

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