By Jean-Christophe Vali?re
This ebook issues the presentation of particle pace size for acoustics utilizing lasers, together with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV or Anemometry (LDA)) and Particle Imagery Velocimetry (PIV).
The goal is first to offer the significance of measuring the acoustic speed, specially while the acoustic equations are nonlinear in addition to characterizing the close to fields. besides the fact that, those purposes have to use non-invasive sensors. a few optical recommendations, before everything built for fluid mechanics, were tailored to the sphere of acoustics lately. This booklet summarizes 15 years of study during this region, highlighting the advancements which were made, quite in sign processing, and displaying purposes for which they've got confirmed to be a provider of innovation.
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Extra info for Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Laser. Principles, Signal Processing and Applications
The understanding of this effect needs a complete measurement in the acoustic boundary layer (less than 1 mm) and a joint estimation of the acoustic and flow velocity, the last being about 1% of the acoustic velocity. This problem has been addressed by a large number of authors, as we will see in Chapter 4. 6. , Propagation of Sound in Porous Media: Modeling Sound Absorbing Material, John Wiley, 2009. , “Termination impedance of open-ended cylindrical tubes at high sound pressure level”, Comptes-Rendus Mecanique, vol.
This condition is much more difficult to respect in actual experiments because the pressure rarely vanishes in a singularity. Nevertheless, in a first approximation, this is the case of an open end of an acoustic pipe. 37] Not only should the acoustic velocity be known, but also the vibration of the wall. ). The acoustic impedance, which is the ratio between a scalar variable on the projection of a vectorial variable, has to be used very carefully and its measurement must be carried out in a sensitive manner.
These kinds of measurements need a good choice of microphone positions and L should be adapted to the analyzed frequency domain. Above all, a precise estimation in magnitude and phase should be achieved; the calibration procedure is quite delicate. It is also possible to estimate velocity using more than two microphones; the principles are similar. 2. 4. 57] where is the imaginary part. 57] shows that the estimation of intensity necessitates only the interpectrum calculation of the pressures given by both microphones (see chapter 2).