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By William Edward Maxwell

Sir William Edward Maxwell (1846-1897) of the internal Temple, Barrister-at-Law; Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula, was once the writer of A handbook of the Malay Language (1882).

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See also Marsden, Malay Grammar, xxxiii. 10. “The Hindu religion and Sanskrit language were, in all probability, earliest introduced in the western part of Sumatra, the xliv nearest part of the Archipelago to the continent of India. Java, however, became eventually the favourite abode of Hinduism, and its language the chief recipient of Sanskrit. Through the Javanese and Malays Sanskrit appears to have been disseminated over the rest of the Archipelago, and even to the Philippine Islands. This is to be inferred from the greater number of Sanskrit words in Javanese and Malay—especially in the first of these—than in the other cultivated languages, from their existing in greater purity in the Javanese and Malay, and from the errors of these two languages, both as to sense and orthography, having been copied by all the other tongues.

Segawon, a dog. J. and Mak. unta; S. onta. Kw. daka and andaka. , and Malg. kala; Bat. kala; Mak. patikala. J. and S. gayak; Bat. gak; Mak. kala; D. kak. J. and S. merak; Mak. muraka; D. marak. J. ongsa; S. gangsa. S. japati; Bat. darapati; Tag. palapati; Bis. salapati. J. kokila. Perhaps the Malay word harîmau (Kw. rimong; Bat. arimo, tiger-cat; D. harimaung, panther), a tiger, may have been formed from Hari (Krishna or Vishnu) and mṛiga (an animal). , Kṛishṇa-mṛiga (the black antelope), mahâ-mṛiga (an elephant).

Pana, arrow. J. and S. keris and kris; Bat. horis; Mak. kurisi; Tag. and Bis. kalis. J. gada. J. gandewa. Kw. churika, a kris. J. and S. satru. Kw. and S. rana. J. and S. jaya. Among the Malays the titles of royalty and nobility, and many of the terms in use for the paraphernalia of the court, are Sanskrit. 32 Crawfurd was not satisfied that the terms alluded to proved that Hinduism had exercised much influence on Malayan government;33 but when to these is added a long catalogue of words connected with law, justice, and administration, it will probably be apparent that Indian influence has played an important part in moulding the institutions of the Malays.

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