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By Erik van Gijn

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Extra info for A grammar of Yurakaré

Example text

Adelaar with Muysken (2004: 500‐501). The resulting form /talipa/ may be due to syllable deletion: /ata(wa)¥pa/.  It is also distinguished from /o/ which has allophone [ç]: (25) uSpe ‘he bathes’ çSpe ‘new’ /e/ and /o/ The mid vowels /e/ and /o/ differ in quality depending on whether they are in an open or closed syllable. In the latter environment they are lowered to [] and [ç] respectively. As shown in (25), /o/ contrasts with /u/. The vowel /e/ can be contrasted with /Q/; /o/ can be contrasted with /a/: (26) a tQhtQ ‘leg’ tehte ‘grandmother’ b Sonko ‘hole’ Sonka ‘he makes a hole’ /Q/ This low front vowel is a marked sound in the region, and one of the sounds that make Yurakaré sound distinct from neighboring languages.

Geminates can be the result of a process, but they can also be base‐generated. 1. When a vowel is deleted, as exemplified in (40), C1 becomes the coda of the preceding vowel. (40) VC1VC2V >> VC1V C2V Gemination in these circumstances occurs in two cases: when C1 and C2 are identical (cf. (38)b), or when C1 is a consonant that cannot be in the coda of a syllable (cf. (38)a), when no other adapting process takes place (cf. 1 above). In all other cases, there is no gemination as a result of elision, cf.

In example (71)b, this syllable carries stress, without gemination applying. This is because the prefix ti‐, is a 14 I have heard tipántalu on occasion as well.  In that case stress has to be located on the rightmost of the stress‐avoiding syllables, the basic stress rule based on footing applies. More examples of these kinds of nouns with stress‐avoiding are: Table 11 ‐ Nouns with stress‐avoiding syllables Citation form Gloss 1SG possessed 1PL possessed chitchi fingernail tichichi tachichi chitti chobbe dalla dojjo dullu korre kummë meyye pëllë samma sibbë tibba yarru crop of bird left side head body right side tobacco tree ear skin water house pet chicha 16 tichiti tichobe tidala tidojo tidulu tijore tijumë timeye tipëlë tisama tisibë titiba tiyaru machiti tachobe tadala tadojo tadulu tajore tajumë tameye tapëlë masama tasibë tatiba tayaru Not all disyllabic nouns with a geminate consonant lose this gemination, however: (72) détte ‘throat’ tidétte ‘my throat’ tadétte ‘our throat’ I consider the geminate consonants of (72) to be base generated, other examples of base generated geminates are /k˘/ in makkata ‘name’, and /l˘/ in ballata ‘plant seed’.

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