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By Chet A. Creider, Jane Tapsubei Creider

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3. /I/ Unlike the historical emphatics /t/ and /s/, which have largely lost their emphatic quality, the innovative emphatic /l/ is regularly realized with pharyngalization. g. lala 'maternal uncle' lala 'lung' mala 'village' mala 'trowel' mila 'dead' mila 'circumcision' näqole 'to extract (forbidden näqole 'to dance' parts of an animal)' pela 'radish' pela 'eyelash' 3 Cf. the remarks of Hezy Mutzafi regarding emphasis neutralization in the Jewish Koy Sanjak dialect (Mutzafi 2004: 27). PHONOLOGY 19 The pharyngalization of /l/ is demonstrated instrumentally by the fact that it consistently has a significantly lower second formant than /l/.

Vi) The existence of two past tense conjugations, a simple past consisting of a past stem and inflectional endings and a compound perfect consisting of a resultative participle and an enclitic form of the verb 'to be', as is found in Kurdish and Persian. ), which is a feature of Kurdish. (viii) The normal placement of the direct object before the verb, as in Kurdish and Persian. INFORMANTS AND TEXTS The material for this grammar was gathered in the course of various rounds of fieldwork conducted in Israel over the last four years.

Aspal 'goods, merchandise' 'äwal 'first, beginning' bäxeli 'jealousy' gala 'leaf' halwa 'sweets' hämala 'porter' jangal 'forest' mangal 'brazier' pätila 'container' pule 'money' qali 'carpet' zuxal 'coals' It is found in a number of words of NENA origin. g. 3. 1. g. ' < 3it < }ema heka 'where? < }eka The verbs in which this development is attested belong to the class of verbs that distinguish the realis from the irrealis by attaching an initial k-/gprefix. g. hwy 'to be'. g. }axal '(that) he eats' kxal 'He eats' 3ale '(that) he knows' kae 'He knows' This suggests that the shift has been lexicalized for certain lexical items only.

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