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By Morris Salkoff

1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. creation, p1; four. 2. significant sentence buildings; the verb; the item, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; functions, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339

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Extra info for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles

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And it seems unlikely that any direct appeal to meaning will produce such a program in the foreseeable future. However, the methods presented here allow the MT researcher to sidestep the thorny problem of how to represent meaning in some INTRODUCTION 23 system of absolute units, while at the same time meaning is in effect used by the grammarian, although indirectly, to constitute the rules of the comparative grammar. The latter grammar can be used in an MT program to produce the TL English sentence from the SL French.

In (1l)b, the phrase à Nj is the right adjunct of a verb, as in Ils ont blessé Paul à la tête → They wounded Paul on the head, or a sentence adjunct, as in À la poitrine, Paul avait une médaille → On the chest Paul had a medal8. In this case, à translates as on. 38). Still other semantic sub-classes can only be defined in extenso, as translational sub-classes between particular groups of French and English equivalents. 2). ]) b àN →at N à (la maison + l'aube + l'âge de 5 ans) → at (the house + dawn + the age of 5) c à N →in N (à l'ombre + au soleil + au printemps + à Npays + à Nville) → in (the shade + the sun + spring + Canada + Paris) The groups of nouns requiring one of the translations of à as on, at, or in cannot be defined intensionally.

When voici/voilà is followed by a time noun Nt and a complement clause, voici/voilà Nt is translated as it has been Nt, and the main verb of the clause is translated as a present perfect progressive, for those verbs that can appear in this tense (cf. 23), and as a present perfect for those verbs that cannot. :. : Obj tV Sbj in the subordinate → Sbj tV Obj in English; cf. 12, (i)) c Voici pourquoi Max est faché → Here is why Max is angry The noun adjunct que voici can be translated as here when it is not followed by a colon, and as following, with a permutation to the left of the noun, when followed by a colon: (35)a L'hypothèse que voici est que Ph → The hypothesis here is that S b Il a fait la proposition que voici: nous devons...

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