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If we were to test the whole program as one, we would need 550 test cases to be sure that each alternative was tested. Each module separately requires only 5 (easier) test cases, for a total of 5 × 50 = 250. Hence a problem of impossible size has been reduced to one that, for a large program, is of quite modest size. Before you conclude that glass-box testing is always the preferable method, we should comment that, in practice, black-box testing is usually more effective in uncovering errors. Ramana Murthy Khammam 32 Chapter 1 • Programming Principles misunderstanding of the exact conditions and standards of information interchange between functions.

Their presence, however, means that the for loops counting neighbors need make no distinction between rows or columns on the boundary of the grid and any other rows or columns. 2. 0 1 2 … hedge maxcol maxcol + 1 0 1 2 hedge … Color tint shows neighbors of black cells. 2. Life grid with a hedge sentinel Another term often used instead of hedge is sentinel: A sentinel is an extra entry put into a data structure so that boundary conditions need not be treated as a special case. int Life :: neighbor_count(int row, int col) /* Pre: The Life object contains a configuration, and the coordinates row and col define a cell inside its hedge.

2. Does the program work correctly under all conditions? 3. Does the program have a good user interface? Can it receive input in forms convenient and easy for the user? Is its output clear, useful, and attractively presented? Does the program provide alternatives and optional features to facilitate its use? Does it include clear and sufficient instructions and other information for the user? The remaining questions concern the structure of the program (continuing the process begun in glass-box testing).

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